How Two Microbes Changed History

7 130 Shikime 721 mijë
Shkencë dhe teknologji

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What if I told you that, more than two billion years ago, some tiny living thing started to live inside another living thing … and never left? And now, the descendants of both of those things are in you?
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Chemical and membrane similarities between prokaryotes and organelles:
Margolin W. 2005. FTSZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 6(11): 862-871.
Wise RR, Hoober JK. 2007. Structure and function of plastids. Springer, Berlin. (Chapter 5)
ISBN 9781402065705
Zeth K, Thein M. 2010. Porins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: common themes and variations. Biochemical Journal 431(1): 13-22.
DOI: 10.1042/BJ20100371
Fischer K, Weber A, Brink S, Arbinger B, Schünemann D, Borchert S, Heldt HW, Popp B, Link TA, Eckeskorn C, Flügge U-I. 1994. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two new members of the porin family. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269(41): 25754-25760.
Fairman JW, Noinaj N, Buchanan SK. 2011. The structural biology of β-barrel membrane proteins: a summary of recent reports. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 21(4): 523-531.
Mileykovskaya E, Dowhan W. 2009. Cardiolipin membrane domains in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 1788(10): 2084-2091.
Organelle genomes, organelle dependence on the host cells:
Timmis JN, Ayliffe MA, Huang CY, Martin W. 2004. Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes. Nature Reviews Genetics 5: 123-135.
Andersson SGE, Zomorodipour A, Andersson JO, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Alsmark UCM, Podowski RM, Näslund AK, Eriksson A-S, Winkler HH, Kurland CG. 1998. The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii and the origin of mitochondria. Nature 396: 133-140.
Stoebe B, Kowallik KV. 1999. Gene-cluster analysis in chloroplast genomics. Trends in Genetics 15, 344-347.
Douglas A, Raven JA. 2003. Genomes at the interface between bacteria and organelles. Philosophical Transactions B 358(1429): 5-18.
doi: 10.1098/rstb.2002.1188
Dagan T, Roettger M, Stucken K, Landan G, Koch R, Major P, Gould SB, Goremykin VV, Rippka R, Tandeue de Marsac N, Gugger M, Lockhart PJ, Allen JF, Brune I, Maus I, Pühler A, Martin WF. 2013. Genomes of stigonematalean cyanobacteria (Subsection V) and the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis from prokaryotes to plastids. Genome Biology and Evolution 5(1): 31-44.
History of the idea:
Sagan, L. 1967. On the origin of mitosing cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology 14(3): 225-274.
Oldest fossil appearances:
Bengtson S, Sallstedt T,Belivanova V, Whitehouse M. 2017. Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggest 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae. PLOS Biology 15(3): e2000735.
Bengtson S, Rasmussen B, Ivarsson M, Muhling J, Broman C, Marone F, Stampononi M, Bekker A. 2017. Fungus-like mycelial fossils in 2.4-billion-year-old vesicular basalt. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1, Article number: 0141 (2017)


  1. Heather Spoonheim
    Heather Spoonheim
    9 ditë më parë

    My favorite Eons host, and I don't even know her name. Why is she not in the credits?

  2. Devendra Bhushan
    Devendra Bhushan
    18 ditë më parë

    Brilliant explanation

  3. BioVídeos
    22 ditë më parë

    Hello! I don't know if you've noticed, but when you explain prokaryotic cells, you show an image of a cell with nucleus! It appears within 1:05 and 1:10. If someone else did tell you this, sorry to bother you again.

  4. Fernando
    23 ditë më parë

    Lynn Margulis and Carl Woes are my héroes. Excellent video

  5. KFC Official
    KFC Official
    25 ditë më parë

    I needed this video in middle school

  6. Alex
    27 ditë më parë

    i wish we went over this in biology class :/

  7. Albert Chehade
    Albert Chehade
    Muaj më parë

    I'm a fun-gi.........

  8. DJ Rod
    DJ Rod
    Muaj më parë

    Sad reality though is declaring statements like, "Living in symbiosis with pathogens is the essence to/of life" is likely to get you arrested in 2021.

  9. Samuel Garcia
    Samuel Garcia
    Muaj më parë

    In the Cell, Part of the Cell In the Cell, Part of the Cell IN THE CELL, PART OF THE CELL YEEEEAAAAAAAAH

  10. End Of Century
    End Of Century
    Muaj më parë

    "Can you hear it? Your mitochondria are calling out to you!"

  11. alnot01
    Muaj më parë

    Carl Woese, who discovered archae, was one of the greatest biologists of all time.

  12. motruk4
    2 muaj më parë

    Not random (around two minutes in). Genetic variation may occur randomly but selection is non-random.

  13. julia kunz
    julia kunz
    2 muaj më parë

    Please check out the inside-out theory... more plausible

  14. Tom Marvolo Riddle
    Tom Marvolo Riddle
    2 muaj më parë

    Imagine what evolution would have looked like if this chance event didn't happen?

  15. Mayank Tripathi
    Mayank Tripathi
    2 muaj më parë

    where will evolution lead us .. just hope that in the event of a cataclysmic event as that happened 65 million years ago humanity does not lose all all collective knowledge..and we to store and retrieve data perhaps even in outer space or store it in many voyager like satellites which are programmed to find new energy sources and keep voyaging in a comet like orbit

  16. Patrick Sarama
    Patrick Sarama
    2 muaj më parë

    *meanwhile 2 billion years ago while 2 cells were replicating...* Cell 1: “see you later alligator” Cell 2: “In a while crocodile” *2 billion years later...* Crocodile: “I told you we’d see each other again” Alligator: “Nice”

  17. ayush upadhyay
    ayush upadhyay
    2 muaj më parë

    almost all have mitochondria ???? Which eukaryotes don't have mitochondria? 🤔

    1. Fundamental Fanatic
      Fundamental Fanatic
      2 muaj më parë

      you as eukaryote, have cells within you which dont contain mitochondria like red blood cells for example. they lose it so that cell is able to move more oxygen only eukaryotic organism known to lack is the oxymonad Monocercomonoides species

  18. Hongliang Lim
    Hongliang Lim
    2 muaj më parë

    Me: Mitochondria Internet: Powerhouse of the cell Me: ok

  19. LoRe ZampaDeFerro
    LoRe ZampaDeFerro
    2 muaj më parë

    The prokaryote watching this video: "Yes! That's me!"

  20. Blizzard Wolf
    Blizzard Wolf
    3 muaj më parë

    I identify myself as a prokaryote, thank you very much

  21. Ran Y2J
    Ran Y2J
    3 muaj më parë

    One of the answers to Fermi Paradox

  22. Mon Hunterz
    Mon Hunterz
    3 muaj më parë

    You know, if you play your cards right, you could be able turn this into a love story

  23. raffian moin
    raffian moin
    3 muaj më parë

    bacterium 2: mom,i'm gonna sleep over my friend bacterium 1's house. ........... Multicelled organisms.

  24. Vishwanath Choudhary
    Vishwanath Choudhary
    3 muaj më parë

    Origin of humans

  25. lilsplace
    3 muaj më parë

    Hey Eons people thanks for that info video. I knew about mitochondria being originally bacteria but not about chloroplasts and also not about red algae in kelp. Very interesting. Can you do a video about how a virus became the reason mammals have a placenta including us and talk about different types of viruses that can be beneficial in symbiosis rather than kill us? Thank you. 🙏

  26. Barbara Hill
    Barbara Hill
    4 muaj më parë

    What I would like to know is why two different sexes evolved.

    1. Tharpa Roberts
      Tharpa Roberts
      3 muaj më parë

      To make it more difficult for microbial diseases to attack us. If you have two parents, the children are not exact copies of the parents, so it is harder for diseases to target.

  27. Anki King
    Anki King
    4 muaj më parë

    The force is with us!

  28. TimeWalker
    4 muaj më parë

    First marriage?

    4 muaj më parë

    I try to watch all the videos!

    4 muaj më parë

    LOVE PBS EONS!!!!!

  31. Pinefr0st
    4 muaj më parë

    You see, when two microbes love each other very very much...

  32. Nik Nik
    Nik Nik
    4 muaj më parë


  33. wfh for ppl
    wfh for ppl
    5 muaj më parë

    So cute

  34. tyler's taco Tøp
    tyler's taco Tøp
    5 muaj më parë

    Did you just tell me to brace my cells?

  35. Omar Wright
    Omar Wright
    5 muaj më parë

    I am looking for information on the role insects played in evolution. They reproduce copiously and everything eats them. Flight in other species is a byproduct of trying to catch flying prey items. Locust can completely consume all plant life in their path. How did imbalances in insect populations arbitrarily change the path of evolution?

    5 muaj më parë

    Does this mean that Eukaryotes might possibly be paraphyletic? Also, did Eukaryotes originate from prokaryotes infected by prokaryotes, or did eukaryotes become more derived by eukaryotes infected by prokaryotes.

    5 muaj më parë

    Until halfway through this video, it sounds like your going to say one bacteria infect another. That doesn’t make sense. Then you say bacteria infected us. I liked the first thing better.

    5 muaj më parë

    Viruses: Plague Inc says we have ATP boost, so we’ll say we do! Eukaryotes: We have ATP as well, but nobody cares.

    5 muaj më parë

    Symbiotic doesn’t mean everyone’s a winner. Symbiosis is just the interrelationship of two species based on benefit vs anti?-benefit. Parasitism is also a form of symbiosis, and what we normally call symbiosis or a symbiotic relationship is mutualism, a form of symbiosis in which, you guessed it, both organisms mutually benefit.

  40. Dorian Ertymexx
    Dorian Ertymexx
    5 muaj më parë

    "One living thing living inside another living thing" - MIDICHLORINES!!! *ducks* ;-)

  41. Sandra Yuen
    Sandra Yuen
    5 muaj më parë

    THANK YOU!! So very helpful!

  42. Michelle Landreth
    Michelle Landreth
    5 muaj më parë

    I love your voice!

  43. Daynite Latearly
    Daynite Latearly
    5 muaj më parë

    Look at the results today, we hate and kill each other and are destroying our planet. They should've minded their own dang business and gone there separate ways!!

  44. Stephen Beres
    Stephen Beres
    5 muaj më parë

    🙄 I'm glad to be a eukaryote! 😀 I'm also a fun guy!

  45. rip_skii
    5 muaj më parë

    I'm happy for them!

  46. thexalon
    5 muaj më parë

    I got to hear a guest lecture by Lynn Margulis at my alma mater in the early 2000's. She was brilliant and extremely clear about explaining all of this to an audience of mostly non-biologists.

  47. Maria Grå
    Maria Grå
    5 muaj më parë

    Life is weird. Knowledge is fun. 😼

  48. Tech Enthusiast
    Tech Enthusiast
    5 muaj më parë

    Hmmm. This sounds speculative though.

    1. Skyforger Pack
      Skyforger Pack
      5 muaj më parë


  49. Ayblablabla
    5 muaj më parë

    Does plastids also have that second membre and genetic material?

  50. Ronaldo Brito Roque
    Ronaldo Brito Roque
    5 muaj më parë

    Are you the wife of that guy?

  51. Nagaraj U Bhat
    Nagaraj U Bhat
    6 muaj më parë

    If they both are different bacterias then why can't they fight other microbes that enter our cells as parasites

  52. Mohammed Ali
    Mohammed Ali
    6 muaj më parë

    the inner tree in me.

  53. Electrum
    6 muaj më parë

    Elysia chlorotica carries out kleptoplastia, which makes it a photosynthetic animal.

  54. Femme Sammy
    Femme Sammy
    6 muaj më parë

    Bacteria: Cell: Eat (At least 7 years later) Humans: Anyway so here's why there's only 2 genders Cell made a mistake with that one smh.

  55. Pastor Nezuko
    Pastor Nezuko
    6 muaj më parë

    At least something has been in me

  56. Dr. Ayush Singh
    Dr. Ayush Singh
    6 muaj më parë

    Love you guys

  57. Randy Rosson
    Randy Rosson
    6 muaj më parë

    you need to slow your presentations down. give us a chance to absorb one sentence before you go into the next. some of us are 70 years old and it takes a few seconds to absorb the information.

  58. Özgür Saydır
    Özgür Saydır
    6 muaj më parë

    this is majestic.

  59. Bemused Bandersnatch
    Bemused Bandersnatch
    7 muaj më parë

    So kelp are ****ing weird. I knew it.

    1. Femme Sammy
      Femme Sammy
      6 muaj më parë

      Never trusted those bastards. Always touching my leg when I'm at the beach like a horny Satan.

  60. Blogger Girl
    Blogger Girl
    7 muaj më parë

    Thank you bae 😍

  61. mdb123
    7 muaj më parë

    Cyanobacteria is probably the 1st life on planet Earth and came into existence 4.1 billion years ago. 4.1 billion years later they still appear the same as they were 4.1 billion years ago. Evolution from single cells to us -- homo sapiens sapiens? How could photosynthesis come into existence 4.1 billion years ago evolutionary biologists? How?

    1. Skyforger Pack
      Skyforger Pack
      5 muaj më parë

      @mdb123 That doesn't answer my question.

    2. mdb123
      5 muaj më parë

      @Skyforger Pack Photosynthesis is so complicated that even after studying it for 200 years, we still don't know exactly how it works. But we humans have improved it's efficiency for the first time THIS year 2020.

    3. Skyforger Pack
      Skyforger Pack
      5 muaj më parë

      What do you mean how? Do you know what photosynthesis is?

  62. Harriet Harlow
    Harriet Harlow
    7 muaj më parë

    Very interesting presentation. So we started out as a cell that was merged with a bacteria, more or less.

    1. Harriet Harlow
      Harriet Harlow
      5 muaj më parë

      @Skyforger Pack Actually, if you consider our entire evolutionary history, we did start out as a cell merged with a bacteria.

    2. Skyforger Pack
      Skyforger Pack
      5 muaj më parë

      We didn't, our ancestors did though. That's a common thing people mistake and then try to say evolution supports. We didn't start off as single cell organisms (aside from sperm) but out ancestors did.

  63. Re Jazz
    Re Jazz
    8 muaj më parë

    i've heard there was some sort of prehistoric disease that caused a major population decline in homosapiens. the small procentage of survivers were able to adapt, but only due to a drastic changes in the immunal system. so to this day our immunity is for the most part shaped to fight that pathogen alone, leaving us vulnerable to many others. perhaps you guys could shed some light on that issue? cheers!

  64. Matt Evans
    Matt Evans
    8 muaj më parë

    Silly microbes, you can't change history.

  65. Juan D'Marco
    Juan D'Marco
    8 muaj më parë


  66. Just Em
    Just Em
    8 muaj më parë

    I wish she would've mentioned that mitochondria use a separate amino acid code

  67. Quantum Dave
    Quantum Dave
    8 muaj më parë

    How did the genetic code for the symbiotic cell get passed on?

  68. Meyotra You Tube Channel
    Meyotra You Tube Channel
    8 muaj më parë

    So, does that mean that non plant multicellular organisms are older than the chlorofil group?

    1. Femme Sammy
      Femme Sammy
      6 muaj më parë

      Innit pronounced Chlorophyll?

  69. Michael Gaffney
    Michael Gaffney
    8 muaj më parë

    Scary to think if that bacteria died...

    1. Femme Sammy
      Femme Sammy
      6 muaj më parë

      Not able to think if that bacteria died.

  70. TheWhatyr
    8 muaj më parë

    Cells within Cells await you

  71. Joe Joestar
    Joe Joestar
    8 muaj më parë

    My theory was that the mitochondria ancestor was trying to grow inside the cell and use it as a base like the Rickettsia bacteria which can survive inside a host cell and kill the host cell to spread to other cell. A mutation made it impossible to make the ancestor of the mitochondria to create an enzyme to break down the bubbles fat it was trap in, instead a protein or an RNA from the cell enter the mitochondria(found that cell give some protein to mitochondria), in which through thousands of years, the protein force the mitochondria to shut off everything except for atp factory code by cutting the genetic code for the function of the ancestor mitochondria's DNA out and replaced them with proteins

  72. Joe Joestar
    Joe Joestar
    8 muaj më parë

    Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell, and Rickettsia is the enemy of the cell

  73. Stingray1330
    8 muaj më parë

    They won’t heart this comment😂😤

    1. Femme Sammy
      Femme Sammy
      6 muaj më parë

      @Stingray1330 Sorting by new obv.

    2. Stingray1330
      6 muaj më parë

      How did you find my comment lmao?

    3. Stingray1330
      6 muaj më parë

      @Femme Sammy lmao

    4. Femme Sammy
      Femme Sammy
      6 muaj më parë

      You're right.

  74. Piotr Juszczyk
    Piotr Juszczyk
    9 muaj më parë

    They join. But how they can copy to new one?

  75. Repz Gaming
    Repz Gaming
    9 muaj më parë

    1:22 I'm just a microbe watching this, carry on.

  76. Michael Casimer
    Michael Casimer
    9 muaj më parë

    5:20 After you said gut bacteria my gut growled. Lol.

  77. Michael Casimer
    Michael Casimer
    9 muaj më parë

    So when one cell loves another ... Ta da here you are.

  78. John Feesey
    John Feesey
    9 muaj më parë

    This kind of blows it wide open.I mean if this eaters eating eaters thing is investigated then complex cells like humans have are derived from potentially an entire cascade of simpler cells, which when you think about it makes sense.Why reinvent the wheel when you can just get in the car?

  79. Da Hawk
    Da Hawk
    9 muaj më parë

    1:53 ~ "...ALL of it." Is it too much to ask scriptwriters to be _accurate?_ NO, it is not "all of it". Single cell life forms are still life forms. So _almost_ all of it. Insert that single word, and Voila. You're now speaking accurately. And whoever this host is, this is not just a scriptwriter fault. It is everyone in the chain who decided to let this slip by. Or failed to notice it.

  80. Anthony Repetto
    Anthony Repetto
    9 muaj më parë

    *Weird Prediction* : Further study of biofilms from DNA samples in oceanic sediments will show that the early endosymbiosis was only possible because both cell types first accumulated locally, then began exchanging nutrients as a microscopic clump, learning to *not eat each other* . Only *then* will the larger cell successfully absorb the small one, for protection that benefits both. It's a series of ecologically viable and mutually beneficial 'baby steps'. I give it eight years.

  81. 230968
    9 muaj më parë

    Where did the two organisms that fused together come from?

  82. Ameha K
    Ameha K
    9 muaj më parë

    Prokaryotes are professional, eukaryotes are selfish.

  83. Jasper Molenaar
    Jasper Molenaar
    10 muaj më parë

    Great video, but I would like a slight pauze between sentences! By cutting these out it all feels very hurried.

  84. Michael Krumholz
    Michael Krumholz
    10 muaj më parë

    ... but when did eukaryotes lose their midichlorians?

  85. prescillia bloomfield
    prescillia bloomfield
    10 muaj më parë

    Can u talk about the horse shoe crab?

  86. MikroScope
    11 muaj më parë

    @ 3:36 that is not bacteria, it's paramecium ......... caudatum. I'll leave now.

  87. S S
    S S
    11 muaj më parë

    What I want know is by what biological mechanism ‘genetically independent’ mitochondria is passed on consistently and uniformly from ‘host’ to the ‘host’s’ offspring?

  88. Cotton Candy Sharks
    Cotton Candy Sharks
    11 muaj më parë

    This was a beautiful video, thank you (:

  89. Boosted Popcorn
    Boosted Popcorn
    11 muaj më parë

    What the shutter this is amazing what the helll whagggggg. Legit this is mind blowing

  90. Uri Weill
    Uri Weill
    11 muaj më parë

    Can you make an episode about the beginning of multucellularity?

  91. Rick L.
    Rick L.
    11 muaj më parë

    I learned more in this video than I did in high school 🤣😂🤣

  92. Max Hills
    Max Hills
    11 muaj më parë

    A special on the synthesis of the fields of genetics and evolutionary theory would be great!

  93. Fey Truet
    Fey Truet
    11 muaj më parë

    Mitochondrial Eve

  94. thetool96
    11 muaj më parë

    These videos on ancient life are simply awesome. Definitely Eons is my favorite channel.

  95. Oscar D. Lisboa
    Oscar D. Lisboa
    11 muaj më parë

    I literally thought this theory before... Cool to know Im not the only one who thinks this way

  96. Alexandre Alferan
    Alexandre Alferan
    11 muaj më parë


  97. lazycloud
    11 muaj më parë

    True soulmates.

  98. Wil Schweitzer
    Wil Schweitzer
    11 muaj më parë

    Great topic but the presentation felt a little off (😁sorry), because she wasn't looking at the camera. It appeared she was looking past the film crew.

  99. MaskedMarvyl
    Vit më parë

    Chlorophyll doesn't turn sunlight into sugar; I'm sure she meant to say something else....

  100. MaskedMarvyl
    Vit më parë

    I want to have endosymbiosis with this presenter. Hope she'll find that charming and not weird.....